Frequently Asked Questions
Bad or good health benefits of Taurine?
Particularly full throttle the energy drink.
Taurine amino acid information page
Taurine is a non-essential amino acid and is found in high concentrations in the white blood cells, skeletal muscles, central nervous system as well as the heart muscles. In adults, but not children, this nutrient can be manufactured from methionine in the body and from cysteine in the liver, but vitamin B6 must be present.
Taurine required for
It is a key ingredient of bile, which in turn is needed for fat digestion, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins as well as the control of cholesterol serum levels in the body. (It is incorporated in the bile acid chenodeoxychloic acid, which emulsify the dietary fats) This nutrient is also used in the proper use of potassium, calcium as well as sodium in the body, and for maintaining cell membrane integrity. It is thought to be helpful with anxiety, hyperactivity, poor brain function and epilepsy as well as hydrating the brain. Taurine, together with zinc is also required for proper eye health and vision.
Deficiency of taurine
A deficiency may impair vision and problems with fat metabolism may appear, and a theory exists that it may also be involved in epilepsy developing.
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.
No dosage has been established, but people who take supplements normally take 2 grams, three times per day.
Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No toxicity has been determined and most people would not require a supplement and even small children derive enough of it through human milk, or infant formulas.
Best used with
Vitamin B6 is required by the body to synthesize this nutrient from other nutrients.
When more taurine may be required
Vegans who consume no eggs or dairy products ingest virtually no taurine through their diets, but normally have enough since the body can manufacture the requirements. Children with Down's syndrome may benefit from taurine, and women being treated for breast cancer as well as people with metabolic disorders, since metabolic disorders can cause loss of this nutrient via urine. Diabetics may also benefit from this nutrient, since this disease increase the need for this nutrient.
Enemy of taurine
High intake of alcohol may cause the body not to be able to use it fully.
Taurine is mostly found in meat and fish, and the adult body can manufacture it.
and here's some more:
Taurine is used famously as an active ingredient in energy drinks, such as "Red Bull".
Taurine is a nonessential sulfur-containing amino acid that functions with glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid as a neuroinhibitory transmitter. At times of extreme physical exertion, the body no longer produces the required amounts of taurine, and a relative deficiency results. Taurine acts as a metabolic transmitter and additionally has a detoxifying effect and strengthens cardiac contractility. While taurine does not have a genetic codon and is not incorporated into proteins and enzymes, it does play an important role in bile acid metabolism. Taurine is incorporated into one of the most abundant bile acids, chenodeoxychloic acid where it serves to emulsify dietary lipids in the intestine, promoting digestion.
Taurine is a derivative of L-Methionine >>>>> L-Cysteine >>> Taurine. Taurine synthesis occurs in the liver and the brain. Concentrates of Taurine have also been found in extremely high concentrates in the brain, intestines and skeletal muscles.
Most amino acids have a L- or D- configuration, which means the molecule when put into a solution will rotate light either to the left (Levo=L) or the right (Dextro = D). Taurine does not polarize light and consequently does not have an L- or D- configuration.
It has been established that taurine concentration is extraordinarily high in the developing brain, and falls of sharply thereafter. This occurs at a time when the presumed synthetic pathway, via cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase, has little measurable activity, suggesting that a dietary source of taurine is essential. Moreover, it has been found that high concentrations of taurine are present in breast milk, which reflects the important need for taurine by the growing animal.
Do cats really love milk or is it a myth and if so what kind of food cats like?
Hi there...some cats do love milk, however cow's milk actually isn't good for cats nor nutritionally beneficial. A lot of this began when Hollywood began feeding milk and fish to cats which glamourized the two.
Milk causes diarrehoa and vomiting in cats because they lack enzymes to break down the sugars in milk called lactose. Cats essentially are lactose intolerant. Here are a couple web about this:
Cats benefit best from eating foods designed particularly for them in mind. However, feline nutrition is complicated and most commercial grade cat food and treats are substandard. The reason is to keep the cost of the products affordable to the public, however in the long run many cats suffer the ill-results from the lower quality. If you are interested to delve into this statement further here's a webpage which explains in very great detail about the truth about cat food...canned vs. dry, free feeding vs. scheduled portions, commercial vs. premium brands, etc.
Anyhow, other reasons why cats should only eat foods designed for them rather than human food and fish: feeding human tuna to cats causes steatis (aka yellow fat disease) and enteritis and over time the consumption of this will cause vitamin E and B1 deficiencies which can be fatal. Another reason why cats should eat only cat food is that contains essential minerals felines needs such as taurine (for vision) and a diet alone of human food cannot provide this which will in the end up causing more health problems in the long term. Many human foods tend to include ingredients which can be toxic to cats is the primary reason. I'll include a link near the end of this answer which lists some of the human foods that are toxic to cats. Here's more on the details of why tuna and other fish can be dangerous for cats:
Tuna can be fatal to cats and is not something to be fed to them...The human variety of tuna fish contains an enzyme that destroys vitamin B1 (thiamine). Cats who regularly eat tuna can develop a vitamin B1 deficiency, which results in neurological symptoms like dilated eyes, loss of equilibrium, seizures and death if this vitamin is not replaced. The scientific name of this disease is polioencephlomalacia.
Clearwater veterinarian Richard Brancato said that though most domestic cats do enjoy fish, feeding them a diet of only tuna can cause serious disorders.
Although it is high in protein, tuna lacks sufficient amounts of certain amino acids, mainly taurine, to maintain feline health. There is insufficient calcium to balance the phosphorus; the ratio in canned tuna is 1-to-14.8. This results in bone disease.
Many essential vitamins such as A and most B vitamins are also lacking, Brancato said. A common disease in cats fed a mainstay of canned tuna is steatitis, or yellow fat disease, an inflammation of the fat tissue in the body due to a deficiency of vitamin E.
Source: St. Petersburg Times, published May 14, 2000"
Here's another answer by a veterinarian just recently about the dangers of tuna: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AnXV7g3jq309q2QXly7n9WLsy6IX?qid=20061018194725AAzYqfz
A Veterinarian Answered:
... Actually, it is.
I've had to treat numerous cats over the years for pretty severe enteritis resulting from eating tuna meat. One of my own babies got so ill from it when someone else left it sitting out on the counter for 5 minutes while he turned his back to take a phone call, that I had to put her on IV fluids for 2 days, in addition to intestinal medications.
How many cats do you know who go swimming in the ocean to catch tuna and eat it as part of their natural diet???
Tuna-FLAVORED food....okay. Tuna meat.....bad.
I 'love' brownies....but that doesn't mean they're good for me. Cats also 'love' antifreeze....but we all know what it will do to them. :-/
The most you should do is to use the water that is drained off from the can of tuna (not the oil...for another reason), and drizzle it over their dry cat food once or twice a month. They'll think they died and went to cat heaven!....but without the danger.
Save the tuna meat for your sandwiches.
I'm a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine with 20 yrs exp in private practice (27 total years in the profession.)
Additionally, table scraps are recommended because it can turn consistent eating in to finicky eating habits. Here's more on this as well:
It's generally recommended not to feed cats any table scraps as it some of the food contains ingredients which can be toxic to their system as well as contribtue to obesity. Any vet can simply confirm these two facts.
Cats who are also fed a variety of foods will develop into very finicky eaters which may be why she's not willing to eat what the vet recommends.
Table scraps are a leading cause of digestive disorders.
The rich foods we eat can wreak havoc on your cat's digestive tract. A simple, consistent diet keeps their system functioning as it should. Throw in your very different foods and spices and do not be surprised if your cat has bad gas, bad breath, loose stools, etc. Therefore, you could end up with a finicky eater.
If your cat develops a taste for human foods, she may stop eating her own, which is very common with many strays. After all, which would you prefer, dry cat food or juicy steak and hamburger every night?
Therefore, it's truly important to continue making attempts to feed her one type of cat food and over time she will come around and discover that this food is fine. She may not eat for a couple days, but anything beyond that it's important to coax her to to try and eat some wet cat food mixed with dry as this could be dangerous since cats develop a condition called Fatty Liver disease which can shut down the liver and be fatal. Some people find that mixing ONLY the tuna juices from water packed packed tuna (not oil packed) will entice the cat to eat. Gradually then decrease the amount added and eventually she should be eating her cat food without having any tuna juice added.
Here's the list of foods which cats should avoid eating and why:
can you name some health benefits of the following?
omega 3 fatty acids
i know calcium helps in bone health, protein helps in muscle growth and fiber makes you poop but what else do they do. and what benefits do the rest of the above carry?
Some vitamins -
* PYRIDOXINE B6 Involved in breakdown & assimilation of protein. Protects cardiac health, reduces edema & stabilizes female hormone levels.
* BIOTIN enzyme that carries CO, during certain biochemical reactions involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Also acts as a co-enzyme in the assimilation of other B-complex vitamins. It is destroyed by eating raw egg whites & some kinds of raw fish.
* COBALAMIN B12 difficult to obtain from vegetable sources. A B12 deficiency results in pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration, premature senility, pronounced fatigue & mental illnesses.
* PANTOTHENIC ACID The "stress" vitamin, used by the adrenal glands, along with cholesterol & vitamin C, to manufacture cortisone & other steroids in response to stress. Deficiency encourages sensitivity to allergy, infection, degenerative diseases, ulcers & hypoglycemia.
* FOLIC ACID for proper hemoglobin formation in red blood cells. Deficiency results in anemia, poor growth, skin pigmentation disorders & premature graying of hair.
* INOSITOL Vital lipotropic nutrient that sustains liver health & helps detoxify carcinogens, particularly excess female hormones. Helps normalize blood cholesterol levels. With choline, inositol is used by the liver to manufacture lecithin.
* NIACIN essential to mental health. a cholesterol lowering agent.
* RIBOFLAVIN B2 common vitamin deficiency & results in cataracts, failing vision, watery eyes & eczema.
* THIAMINE B1 co-enzyme in breakdown of carbohydrates. Maintains levels of glucose. Deficiency results in weakness, cardiac damage, abdominal distention & poor oxygenation. Severe shortage results in death.
* TOCOPHEROL - vitamin E protects heart & vascular health, promotes oxygenation of cells & retards aging.
Some Minerals -
* POTASSIUM regulates body electrolyte balance. Deficiency can cause heart arrest, hypertension, adrenal exhaustion & muscular collapse.
* CALCIUM important to bone & dental health, neural transmissions to muscles.
* ZINC effects mental health, skin tone, prostate & healing capacity.
* MAGNESIUM Deficiency can lead to spasmodic muscle & cardiac disorders.
* MANGANESE (25 mg/kg): Promotes activity of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, helps stabilize blood sugar.
* SELENIUM necessary & retards aging, harmful oxidation & free radical formation, reduces effect of carcinogens, improves cardiac efficiency.
* IRON formation of hemoglobin, oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells.
* PHOSPHORUS needed for bone density. Helps to digest carbohydrates & B vitamins niacin & riboflavin.
eight essential amino acids -
* ISOLEUCINE for optimal growth, intelligence development & nitrogen equilibrium
* LEUCINE Stimulator of brain function, increases muscular energy levels.
* LYSINE Builds blood antibodies, strengthens circulatory system & maintains normal growth of cells.
* METHIONINE Vital lipotropic (fat & lipid metabolizing) amino acid that maintains liver health. An anti-stress factor, it calms the nerves.
* PHENYLALANINE Required by the thyroid gland for production of thyroxine which stimulates metabolic rate.
* THREONINE Improves intestinal competence & digestive assimilation.
* TRYPTOPHANE Increases utilization of B vitamins,improves nerve health & stability of the emotions. Promotes sense of calm.
* VALINE Stimulates mental capacity & muscle coordination.
10 of 12 non-essential amino acids :
* ALANINE Strengthens cellular walls.
* ARGININE helps detoxify blood.
* ASPARTIC ACID Aids transformation of carbohydrates into cellular energy.
* CYSTINE Aids pancreatic health, which stabilizes blood sugar & carbohydrate metabolism. Has been used to alleviate some symptoms of food allergy & intolerance.
* GLUTAMIC ACID With glucose, one of the principal fuels for the brain cells. used to reduce craving for alcohol & stabilize mental health.
* GLYCINE Promotes energy & oxygen use in the cells.
* HISTIDINE Strengthens nerve relays
* PROLINE precursor of glutamic acid.
* SERINE Helps form the protective fatty sheaths surrounding nerve fibers.
* TYROSINE Slows aging of cells & suppresses hunger centers in the hypothalamus.
What is Taurine and Guarana?
Its in the drink, RockStar, Taurine 946mg, and Guarana 200mg. What could this do to me?
Taurine (Latin taurus = bull, as it was first isolated from ox (Bos taurus) bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin) or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is an acidic chemical substance found in high abundance in the tissues of many animals (metazoa), especially sea animals.
Many therapeutic applications of taurine have been investigated. Some conditions that taurine might be useful in treating include: cardiovascular diseases, hypercholesterolemia, epilepsy and other seizure disorders, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, hepatic disorders, alcoholism, and cystic fibrosis. Recent studies show that taurine supplements taken by mice on a high-fat diet reduced their overall weight. Studies have yet to be done on the effect of taurine on obesity in humans.
In recent years, taurine has become a common ingredient in energy drinks. Taurine is also often used in combination with bodybuilding supplements such as creatine and anabolic steroids, but there is no evidence to suggest that it has any positive effect on muscle growth.
Guarana or Guaraná (IPA: [gu̯a.ra.'na], [gu̯a.ɾa.'na] or [gu̯a.ɹa.'na]), Paullinia cupana (syn. P. crysan, P. sorbilis), is a shrub or small tree in the Sapindaceae family, native to Venezuela and northern Brazil. The seed of the Guaraná fruit is a central nervous system stimulant with thermogenic and diuretic properties.
Guaraná plays an important role in Tupi and Guaraní Brazilian culture. The name 'guaraná' is derived from the Tupi-Guarani word wara'ná. These tribes believed it to be magical, a cure for bowel complaints and a way to regain strength. They also tell the myth of a 'Divine Child' that was killed by a serpent and whose eyes gave birth to this plant.
Guaraná is used as an ingredient in soft drinks and energy drinks and separately as a dietary supplement to promote health and weight loss.
In addition to other chemicals, the guaraná plant contains caffeine (sometimes called "guaranine"), theophylline, and theobromine. Water extracts of the guarana plant are central nervous system stimulants due to the caffeine content. Energy drink manufacturers typically add synthetic caffeine or caffeine derived from coffee decaffeination.
Weight loss and health supplement
Studies involving guaraná show benefits to cognitive function (PMID 16533867). They have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or similar government agencies. In the United States, guaraná holds a GRAS-status, i.e. generally regarded as safe and must be labeled as not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published a study in June 2001 showing an average 11.2 pound weight loss in a group taking a mixture of yerba mate, guaraná and damiana, compared to an average 1 pound loss in a placebo group after 45 days.
A university study in Brazil of guaraná extract showed a platelet aggregation decrease of up to 37% of control values and a decrease of platelet thromboxane formation from arachidonic acid of up to 78% of control values . This study may be significant to stroke and heart attack risk reduction because when platelets hyperaggregate or excess thromboxane formation occurs, an arterial blood clot can develop, resulting in a heart attack or ischemic stroke.
A separate 1997 study of guaraná's effects on the physical activity of rats showed increased memory retention and physical endurance when compared with a placebo.
Other studies have shown antioxidant, antibacterial, and fat cell reduction (when combined with Conjugated Linoleic Acid) properties in guaraná.
Although side-effects of guaraná are rare, drugs.com recommends, "When considering the use of herbal supplements, consultation with a primary health care professional is advisable. Additionally, consultation with a practitioner trained in the uses of herbal/health supplements may be beneficial, and coordination of treatment among all health care providers involved may be advantageous". Drugs.com also advises not to mix guaraná with ephedrine.